Allergic asthma is characterized by airway hyperresponsiveness, remodeling, and reversible airway obstruction. This is associated with an eosinophilic inflammation of the airways, caused by inhaled allergens such as house dust mite or grass pollen. The inhaled allergens trigger a type-2 inflammatory response with the involvement of innate lymphoid cells (ILC2) and Th2 cells, resulting in high immunoglobulin E (IgE) antibody production by B cells and mucus production by airway epithelial cells. As a consequence of the IgE production, subsequent allergen reexposure results in a classic allergic response with distinct early and late phases, both resulting in bronchoconstriction and shortness of breath. Allergen-specific immunotherapy (AIT) is the only treatment that is capable of modifying the immunological process underlying allergic responses including allergic asthma. Both subcutaneous AIT (SCIT) as well as sublingual AIT (SLIT) have shown clinical efficacy in long-term suppression of the allergic response. Although AIT treatments are very successful for rhinitis, application in asthma is hampered by variable efficacy, long duration of treatment, and risk of severe side effects. A more profound understanding of the mechanisms by which AIT induces tolerance to allergens in sensitized individuals is needed to be able to improve its efficacy. Mouse models have been very valuable in preclinical research for characterizing the mechanisms of desensitization in AIT and evaluating novel approaches to improve its efficacy. Here, we present a rapid and reproducible mouse model for allergen-specific immunotherapy. In this model, mice are sensitized with two injections of allergen adsorbed to aluminum hydroxide, followed by subcutaneous injections (SCIT) or sublingual administrations (SLIT) of allergen extracts as an immunotherapy treatment. Finally, mice are challenged by intranasal allergen administrations. We will also describe the protocols as well as the most important readout parameters for the measurements of invasive lung function, serum immunoglobulin levels, isolation of bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF), and preparation of cytospin slides. Moreover, we describe how to perform ex vivo restimulation of lung single-cell suspensions with allergens, flow cytometry for identification of relevant immune cell populations, and ELISAs and Luminex assays for assessment of the cytokine concentrations in BALF and lung tissue.

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PubMed