MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small RNAs that do not encode for proteins and play key roles in the regulation of gene expression. miRNAs are involved in a comprehensive range of biological processes such as cell cycle control, apoptosis, and several developmental and physiological processes. Oxidative stress can affect the expression levels of multiple miRNAs and, conversely, miRNAs may regulate the expression of redox sensors, alter critical components of the cellular antioxidants, interact with the proteasome, and affect DNA repair systems. The number of publications identifying redox-sensitive miRNAs has increased significantly over the last few years, and some miRNA targets such as Nrf2, SIRT1 and NF-κB have been identified. The complex interplay between miRNAs and ROS is discussed together with their role in myocardial ischemia-reperfusion injury and the potential use of circulating miRNAs as biomarkers of myocardial infarction. Detailed knowledge of redox-sensitive miRNAs is needed to be able to effectively use individual compounds or sets of miRNA-modulating compounds to improve the health-related outcomes associated with different diseases.Copyright © 2020. Published by Elsevier B.V.