Brain metastasis (BM) predominantly occurs in triple-negative (TN) and epidermal growth factor 2 (HER2)-positive breast cancer (BC) patients, and currently, there is an unmet need for the treatment of these patients. BM is a complex process that is regulated by the formation of a metastatic niche. A better understanding of the brain metastatic processes and the crosstalk between cancer cells and brain microenvironment is essential for designing a novel therapeutic approach. In this context, the aberrant expression of miRNA has been shown to be associated with BM. These non-coding RNAs/miRNAs regulate metastasis through modulating the formation of a metastatic niche and metabolic reprogramming via regulation of their target genes. However, the role of miRNA in breast cancer brain metastasis (BCBM) is poorly explored. Thus, identification and understanding of miRNAs in the pathobiology of BCBM may identify a novel candidate miRNA for the early diagnosis and prevention of this devastating process. In this review, we focus on understanding the role of candidate miRNAs in the regulation of BC brain metastatic processes as well as designing novel miRNA-based therapeutic strategies for BCBM.
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