Orthopedics (also – orthopedic surgery) is a field of medicine that deals with diseases, defects, infections, tumors and injuries of the skeletal system, joints and muscles in the human body. The term orthopedics (Greek Orthos = alignment, Pais = child) was first coined in 1741 by the French surgeon Nicolas Andry de Bois-Regard, from Lyon in France, to describe correction and prevention of spinal deformities in children. Only in the second half of the 18th century, did orthopedics separate from general surgery and became a separate specialty in medicine. Much development in the field of orthopedics was achieved due to the various wars and their inevitable results – combat injuries, and following various developments in medicine such as understanding the importance of sterility in surgery, the possibility of surgery under general anesthesia, the use of antibiotics, the development of arthroscopy and fiber-optic equipment and the various imaging options. This article intends to review milestones in the development of orthopedics from the dawn of history in ancient Egypt to the present day, and the first steps of orthopedics in Israel.