Intramural pregnancy (IMP) is a rare type of ectopic pregnancy and potentially fatal. Early diagnosis and management of IMP are important to preserve patient fertility. Here, we describe the use of minimally-invasive surgery for early IMP.
We retrospectively analyzed the clinical data of eight patients with IMP treated at our center (January 2010 to December 2018) and reviewed the literature describing minimally-invasive treatment of IMP.
All eight patients had at least one risk factor for IMP. Two cases were confirmed by ultrasound, but ectopic pregnancy or gestational trophoblastic disease were initially suspected in the other cases. Surgery (laparoscopic in three patients, hysteroscopic in one patient, and laparoscopic combined with hysteroscopic in four patients) was successful in all cases, and all patients recovered well without complications. The literature review identified 14 articles describing 17 cases of IMP managed with minimally-invasive surgery. Laparoscopic surgery was used successfully as a sole treatment in 10 cases and after failure of hysteroscopic surgery in six cases. Only one case was treated with a combination of hysteroscopic surgery and methotrexate. Interestingly, one case at our center presented with a sinus connecting the gestational sac and uterine cavity and was treated successfully using hysteroscopic surgery during early pregnancy.
Laparoscopic surgery is a feasible management option for most cases of early IMP. Hysteroscopic surgery may be appropriate for cases where a sinus connects the gestational sac with the uterine cavity or when cornual ectopic pregnancy needs to be excluded.
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