Diabetes mellitus is a prevalent disease result in several complications, including bone problems. Previous studies have shown that microRNA (miR)-26a regulates glucose metabolism and plays a protective role in diabetes. However, whether miR-26a also affects bone quality in diabetes remains unknown. In the present study, we evaluated the potential effects of miR-26a on bone in diabetic mice. We administrated miR-26a in streptozotocin-induced diabetic mice. The metabolic parameters, bone quality, osteoblast and osteoclast markers, and insulin signaling activation were measured. miR-26a ameliorated insulin resistance and glucose tolerance, improved bone microarchitecture and quality, increased osteoblasts and bone formation, decreased osteoclasts, and promoted the insulin signaling pathway in diabetic mice. These effects were abolished in insulin receptor-compromised Col1a1-Insr mice. In conclusion, miR-26a could ameliorate bone-specific insulin resistance and bone quality in diabetic mice, which depended on the insulin receptors on osteoblasts. Our findings highlight the potential of miR-26a as a therapeutic target for diabetes mellitus-related bone metabolism and diseases.Copyright © 2020 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.