Mitochondria are essential for neuronal function because they serve not only to sustain energy and redox homeostasis but also are harbingers of death. A dysregulated mitochondrial network can cascade until function is irreparably lost, dooming cells. TBI is most prevalent in the young and comes at significant personal and societal costs. Traumatic brain injury (TBI) triggers a biphasic and mechanistically heterogenous response and this mechanistic heterogeneity has made the development of standardized treatments challenging. The secondary phase of TBI injury evolves over hours and days after the initial insult, providing a window of opportunity for intervention. However, no FDA approved treatment for neuroprotection after TBI currently exists. With recent advances in detection techniques, there has been increasing recognition of the significance and roles of mitochondrial redox lipid signaling in both acute and chronic central nervous system (CNS) pathologies. Oxidized lipids and their downstream products result from and contribute to TBI pathogenesis. Therapies targeting the mitochondrial lipid composition and redox state show promise in experimental TBI and warrant further exploration. In this review, we provide 1) an overview for mitochondrial redox homeostasis with emphasis on glutathione metabolism, 2) the key mechanisms of TBI mitochondrial injury, 3) the pathways of mitochondria specific phospholipid cardiolipin oxidation, and 4) review the mechanisms of mitochondria quality control in TBI with consideration of the roles lipids play in this process.
Copyright © 2019. Published by Elsevier Inc.