Arboviruses, especially Dengue virus (DENV) and Zika virus (ZIKV), have been a severe threat to human health in the last few years due to uncontrollable transmission. There are no approved vaccines or clinical drugs available for use to prevent and treat their infections. Transient receptor potential mucolipin 2 and 3 (TRPML2 and TRPML3) were reported to modulate viral entry, but the antiviral function of these modulators was unknown. Here, we reported that ML-SA1, a TRPML agonist, inhibited DENV2 and ZIKV in vitro in a dose-dependent manner. Time-of-drug-addition experiments showed that ML-SA1 mainly restricted viral entry. Moreover, the selective TRPML3 activator SN-2 was found to share a similar antiviral effect against DENV2 and ZIKV, but the specific TRPML1 agonist MK6-83 was not effective. Although ML-SA1 was further revealed to induce autophagy, its antiviral role was independent of autophagy induction. Finally, ML-SA1 was found to inhibit DENV2 and ZIKV by promoting lysosome acidification and protease activity to cause viral degradation. Together, our study identifies two TRPML agonists, ML-SA1 and SN-2, as potent inhibitors of DENV2 and ZIKV, which may lead to the discovery of new candidates against viruses.
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