Endometriosis is one of the most common benign gynecological diseases in women of reproductive age worldwide. In past decades, a number of models have been used to investigate the pathology and therapeutic methods for the treatment of endometriosis. The current review summarized the majority of currently available models, which utilize a variety of cell or tissues types, including endometriotic cell lines, primary endometrial stromal cells, endometrial stem cells, endometrial explants, peritoneal explants and immune cells. These cells or tissues are cultured individually, co-cultured in 2D or 3D systems with various matrices or cultured in chicken chorioallantotic membranes and amniotic membranes culture systems. These models are able to represent one or more aspects of the process of endometriosis. These models are helpful and can be used to investigate the development of endometriosis and the underlying mechanisms of this disorder in detail, and help investigators select appropriate models for their experiments. Recently, the new concept of endometriosis as a fibrotic condition will lead research to investigate the differentiation of myofibroblasts and the development of fibrosis in endometriotic lesions, which will increase the development of novel models that can be used to investigate endometriotic fibrosis.
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