Solitary juvenile polyps (JP) are characterized by a benign disease course with low recurrence rate but present with signs of intestinal inflammation. To better understand the underlying pathogenesis, we performed histological and molecular evaluation targeting distinct immune mechanisms.
Pediatric patients with JP (n = 12), with treatment-naïve inflammatory bowel disease (IBD; [n = 41]) as inflammatory control, and non-IBD controls (n = 14) were investigated. For a comparative analysis of infiltrating immune cells, a next-generation tissue microarray of biopsies was assembled, immunostained, and scored. Targeted transcriptional profiling was performed using a customized immunology panel.
In JP, a predominant accumulation of neutrophils and eosinophils was observed. RNA expression profiles revealed increased levels of CXCL8, CXCL5, and CCL11 transcripts in JP, indicating an enhanced recruitment of neutrophils and eosinophils. Moreover, messenger RNA levels of the proinflammatory cytokine IL1b and the inflammation-amplifying receptor TREM1 were higher in JP, whereas we could not find signs of a functionally polarized Tcell response in JP when compared with IBD.
Patients with JP and patients with treatment-naïve IBD have distinct cell infiltrates during active disease. The ample presence of eosinophils in JP supports neutrophil accumulation, which is responsible for the elevated release of calprotectin. Intriguingly, however, we were not able to identify a functionally polarized T-cell response in JP, which indicates that during the acute onset of inflammation in JP, a potent adaptive immune memory is not established. This may explain the low reoccurrence rate of JP.

Copyright © 2021 The Author(s). Published by Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. on behalf of The American College of Gastroenterology.