Professor Geoffrey Burnstock proposed the concept of purinergic signaling via P1 and P2 receptors. P2Y receptors are G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) for extracellular adenine and uracil nucleotides. Eight mammalian P2Y receptor subtypes have been identified. They are divided into two subgroups (P2Y, P2Y, P2Y, P2Y, and P2Y) and (P2Y, P2Y, and P2Y). P2Y receptors are found in almost all cells and mediate responses in physiology and pathophysiology including pain and inflammation. The antagonism of platelet P2Y receptors by cangrelor, ticagrelor or active metabolites of the thienopyridine compounds ticlopidine, clopidogrel and prasugrel reduces the ADP-induced platelet aggregation in patients with thrombotic complications of vascular diseases. The nucleotide agonist diquafosol acting at P2Y receptors is used for the treatment of the dry eye syndrome. Structural information obtained by crystallography of the human P2Y and P2Y receptor proteins, site-directed mutagenesis and molecular modeling will facilitate the rational design of novel selective drugs.
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