Understanding airborne pollen allergens trends is of great importance for the high prevalence and the socio-economic impact that pollen-related respiratory diseases have on a global scale. Pursuing this aim, aeropalynology evolved as a broad and complex field, that requires multidisciplinary knowledge covering the molecular identity of pollen allergens, the nature of allergen-bearing particles (pollen grains, pollen sub-particles, and small airborne particles), and the distributions of their sources. To estimate the health hazard that urban vegetation and atmospheric pollen concentrations pose to allergic subjects, it is pivotal to develop efficient and rapid monitoring systems and reliable allergic risk indices. Here, we review different pollen allergens monitoring approaches, classifying them into I) vegetation-based, II) pollen-based, and III) allergen-based, and underlining their advantages and limits.Finally, we discuss the outstanding issues and directions for future research that will further clarify our understanding of pollen aeroallergens dynamics and allergen avoidance strategies.
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