Precision medicine risk stratification is desperately needed to both avoid systemic antifungals treatment delay and over prescription in the critically ill with risk factors. The aim of the present study was to explore the combination of host immunoparalysis biomarker (monocyte human leukocyte antigen-DR expression (mHLA-DR)) and Candida sp wall biomarker β-D-glucan in risk stratifying patients for secondary invasive Candida infection (IC).
Prospective observational study. Two intensive care units (ICU). All consecutive non-immunocompromised septic shock patients. Serial blood samples (n = 286) were collected at day 0, 2 and 7 and mHLA-DR and β-D-glucan were then retrospectively assayed after discharge. Secondary invasive Candida sp infection occurrence was then followed at clinicians’ discretion.
Fifty patients were included, 42 (84%) had a Candida score equal or greater than 3 and 10 patients developed a secondary invasive Candida sp infection. ICU admission mHLA-DR expression and β-D-glucan (BDG) failed to predict secondary invasive Candida sp infection. Time-dependent cause-specific hazard ratio of IC was 6.56 [1.24-34.61] for mHLA-DR  350 pg/mL. Predictive negative value of mHLA-DR > 5000 Ab/c and BDG > 350 pg/mL combination at day 7 was 81% [95% CI 70-92].
This study suggests that mHLA-DR may help predicting IC in high-risk patients with septic shock. The added value of BDG and other fungal tests should be regarded according to the host immune function markers.

© 2021. The Author(s).