The development and progression of cardiovascular disease (CVD) can mainly be attributed to the narrowing of blood vessels caused by atherosclerosis and thrombosis, which induces organ damage that will result in end-organ dysfunction characterized by events such as myocardial infarction or stroke. It is also essential to consider other contributory factors to CVD, including cardiac remodelling caused by cardiomyopathies and co-morbidities with other diseases such as chronic kidney disease. Besides, there is a growing amount of evidence linking the gut microbiota to CVD through several metabolic pathways. Hence, it is of utmost importance to decipher the underlying molecular mechanisms associated with these disease states to elucidate the development and progression of CVD. A wide array of systems biology approaches incorporating multi-omics data have emerged as an invaluable tool in establishing alterations in specific cell types and identifying modifications in signalling events that promote disease development. Here, we review recent studies that apply multi-omics approaches to further understand the underlying causes of CVD and provide possible treatment strategies by identifying novel drug targets and biomarkers. We also discuss very recent advances in gut microbiota research with an emphasis on how diet and microbial composition can impact the development of CVD. Finally, we present various biological network analyses and other independent studies that have been employed for providing mechanistic explanation and developing treatment strategies for end-stage CVD, namely myocardial infarction and stroke.
© The Author(s) 2021. Published by Oxford University Press.