SCN5A mutations are associated with multiple arrhythmic and cardiomyopathic phenotypes including Brugada syndrome (BrS), sinus node dysfunction (SND), atrioventricular block, supraventricular tachyarrhythmias (SVTs), long QT syndrome (LQTS), dilated cardiomyopathy and left ventricular noncompaction. Several single SCN5A mutations have been associated with overlap of some of these phenotypes, but never with overlap of all the phenotypes.
We encountered two pedigrees with multiple arrhythmic phenotypes with or without cardiomyopathic phenotypes, and sought to identify a responsible mutation and reveal its functional abnormalities.
Target panel sequencing of 72 genes, including inherited arrhythmia syndromes- and cardiomyopathies-related genes, was employed in two probands. Cascade screening was performed by Saner sequencing. Wild-type or identified mutant SCN5A were expressed in tsA201 cells, and whole-cell sodium currents (I) were recorded using patch-clamp techniques.
We identified an SCN5A A735E mutation in these probands, but did not identify any other mutations. All eight mutation carriers exhibited at least one of the arrhythmic phenotypes. Two patients exhibited multiple arrhythmic phenotypes: one (15-year-old girl) exhibited BrS, SND, and exercise and epinephrine-induced QT prolongation, the other (4-year-old boy) exhibited BrS, SND, and SVTs. Another one (30-year-old male) exhibited all arrhythmic and cardiomyopathic phenotypes, except for LQTS. One male suddenly died at age 22. Functional analysis revealed that the mutant did not produce functional I.
A non-functional SCN5A A735E mutation could be associated with multiple arrhythmic and cardiomyopathic phenotypes, although there remains a possibility that other unidentified factors may be involved in the phenotypic variability of the mutation carriers.