Infectious diseases and their pandemics periodically attract public interests due to difficulty in treating the patients and the consequent high mortality. Sepsis caused by an imbalanced systemic inflammatory response to infection often leads to organ failure and death. The current therapeutic intervention mainly includes “the sepsis bundles,” antibiotics (antibacterial, antiviral, and antifungal), intravenous fluids for resuscitation, and surgery, which have significantly improved the clinical outcomes in past decades; however, the patients with fulminant sepsis are still in desperate need of alternative therapeutic approaches. One of the potential supportive therapies, extracorporeal blood treatment, has emerged and been developed for improving the current therapeutic efficacy. Here, I overview how the treatment of infectious diseases has been assisted with the extracorporeal adjuvant therapy and the potential utility of various nanobiotechnology and microfluidic approaches for developing new auxiliary therapeutic methods.© The Korean BioChip Society and Springer 2020.