Accelerated bone loss and muscle loss coexist in women with premature ovarian insufficiency (POI), but there are significant gaps in our understanding of musculoskeletal health in POI. This review describes estrogen signaling in bone and its role in skeletal health and disease. Possible mechanisms contributing to bone loss in different forms of POI and current evidence regarding the utility of available diagnostic tests and therapeutic options are also discussed. A literature review from January 2000 to March 2020 was conducted to identify relevant studies. Women with POI experience significant deterioration in musculoskeletal health due to the loss of protective effects of estrogen. In bone, loss of bone mineral density (BMD) and compromised bone quality result in increased fracture risk; however, tools to assess bone quality such as trabecular bone score (TBS) need to be validated in this population. Timely initiation of HRT is recommended to minimize the deleterious effects of estrogen deficiency on bone in the absence of contraindications; however, the ideal estrogen replacement regimen remains unknown. POI is associated with compromised bone health, regardless of the etiology. Ongoing research is warranted to refine our management strategies to preserve bone health in women with POI.
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