The purpose of the study was to assess the epidemiology, risk factors and outcomes of native vertebral osteomyelitis (NVO) in patients with Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia (SAB).
A retrospective institutional review was conducted at Mayo Clinic, Minnesota. Patients aged ≥ 18 years with SAB who developed NVO from January 1, 2006 to December 31, 2020 were included and 3-month follow-up data were abstracted. Data pertaining to patient demographics, risk factors and outcomes were recorded using REDCap. A 1:2 nested case-control analysis was performed, and controls were matched according to age, sex and year of SAB diagnosis.
A total of 103 patients had NVO. A majority (60.2%) of patients was male, with a median age of 62.0 years. Thirty-one (30.1%) cases were caused by methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA). The lumbar spine was most commonly (57.6%) and the most commonly reported comorbid conditions included diabetes mellitus (36.9%) and coronary artery disease (27.2%). Mortality at three-month follow-up was 18.6%. Nested case-control analysis revealed that injection drug use (IDU) and tobacco consumption were significant risk factors associated with NVO, while chronic hemodialysis and chronic liver disease (CLD) were associated with a decreased risk of NVO.
Atherosclerotic vascular disease was prominent in our contemporary cohort with NVO in the setting of SAB. Diabetes mellitus, tobacco consumption, older age and male sex likely contributed to this profile. Because IDU was associated with NVO, an increased number of cases should be anticipated among patients with IDU given the ongoing opioid epidemic in the United States.

Copyright © 2021. Published by Elsevier Inc.