The treatment landscape for renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is rapidly evolving. The aim of this review is to summarize the randomized-controlled trials evaluating the role of immunotherapy in neoadjuvant or adjuvant setting.
We searched PubMed, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, and ClinicalTrials.gov for studies including neoadjuvant or adjuvant immunotherapy, and provided a brief overview of the pharmacodynamics of immunotherapy for RCC.
Several drugs are currently under investigation. In the neoadjuvant setting, four studies are evaluating the role of single-agent immunotherapy, one of dual-agent immunotherapy, and four studies the role of immunotherapy in combination with tyrosine kinase inhibitors or anti-interleukin-1 beta. In the adjuvant setting, two studies are evaluating the role of single-agent immunotherapy and two of dual-agent immunotherapy.
The approval of immune checkpoint inhibition as a front-line therapeutic strategy for advanced RCC has also ultimately led to the investigation of these agents first in the adjuvant and then in the neoadjuvant setting. Currently, there are nine studies aimed to evaluate the role of immunotherapy in the neoadjuvant setting and four studies in the adjuvant setting.