During chronic inflammatory disease, such asthma, leukocytes can invade the central nervous system (CNS) and together with CNS-resident cells, generate excessive reactive oxygen species (ROS) production as well as disbalance in the antioxidant system, causing oxidative stress, which contributes a large part to neuroinflammation. In this sense, the aim of this study is to investigate the effects of treatment with neostigmine, known for the ability to control lung inflammation, on oxidative stress in the cerebral cortex of asthmatic mice. Female BALB/cJ mice were submitted to asthma model induced by ovalbumin (OVA). Control group received only Dulbecco’s phosphate-buffered saline (DPBS). To evaluate neostigmine effects, mice received 80 μg/kg of neostigmine intraperitoneally 30 min after each OVA challenge. Our results revealed for the first time that treatment with neostigmine (an acetylcholinesterase inhibitor that no crosses the BBB) was able to revert ROS production and change anti-oxidant enzyme catalase in the cerebral cortex in asthmatic mice. These results support the communication between the peripheral immune system and the CNS and suggest that acetylcholinesterase inhibitors, such as neostigmine, should be further studied as possible therapeutic strategies for neuroprotection in asthma.