Bipolar disorder (BD) is a chronic mental illness characterized by changes in mood that alternate between mania and hypomania or between depression and mixed states, often associated with functional impairment. Although effective pharmacological and non-pharmacological treatments are available, several patients with BD remain symptomatic. The advance in the understanding of the neurobiology underlying BD could help in the identification of new therapeutic targets as well as biomarkers for early detection, prognosis, and response to treatment in BD. In this review, we discuss genetic, epigenetic, molecular, physiological and neuroimaging findings associated with the neurobiology of BD. Despite the advances in the pathophysiological knowledge of BD, the diagnosis and management of the disease are still essentially clinical. Given the complexity of the brain and the close relationship between environmental exposure and brain function, initiatives that incorporate genetic, epigenetic, molecular, physiological, clinical, environmental data, and brain imaging are necessary to produce information that can be translated into prevention and better outcomes for patients with BD.