The influence of chronic immunosuppression on the course of chikungunya virus (CHIKV) infection in recipients of solid organ transplantation (SOT) is still unsettled. Scarce data suggest that the course of CHIKV infection is generally benign in this population. In addition, the occurrence of severe atypical manifestations associated with CHIKV has not been well documented among SOT recipients. In this report, we describe a 64-year-old male liver transplant recipient who was admitted with fever, headache, arthralgia, left palpebral ptosis, mydriasis, and right hemiparesis. Cranial magnetic resonance imaging did not reveal any alteration suggestive of acute infection. Nevertheless, CHIKV was detected in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) with a real time reverse transcriptase assay. Other PCR assays carried out in CSF were negative for HSV-1 and 2, cytomegalovirus, dengue virus (DENV) and Zika virus (ZIKV). CHIKV viremia was also detected while PCR assays for ZIKV and DENV in the blood were negative. ZIKV viruria was simultaneously present in this case. All neurologic manifestations waned within 2 weeks after the onset. This report shows that chikungunya must be considered in the differential diagnosis of acute neurologic disease in SOT recipients that live or have recently traveled to endemic areas.
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