SARS-CoV-2 has been found to be exquisitely adept at triggering autoimmunity and multiple new onset autoimmune diseases have been described as a post-infectious complication of COVID-19 infection in the adult population. Less has been described in the pediatric population, as infections are more likely to be asymptomatic and less severe. This case reports a previously healthy adolescent patient with new onset antineutrophil cytoplasmic autoantibody-associated vasculitis (AAV) diagnosed in the setting of acute COVID-19 infection.
A previously healthy adolescent male was diagnosed with COVID-19 pneumonia after presenting with infectious symptoms of fever, cough, congestion, and shortness of breath. After worsening of disease, he was found to have pulmonary nodules, atypical for COVID-19. Further imaging and laboratory workup showed elevated inflammatory markers, negative infectious testing, and positive antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies (ANCA) diagnostic for AAV. He was treated with pulse dose steroids followed by a prolonged taper and rituximab. Symptoms resolved and laboratory abnormalities improved over time. At six-month follow-up, lesions were much improved, laboratory markers were within normal limits, and patient remained asymptomatic off medications.
This case is one of the first in the pediatric population to describe new onset AAV presenting with an acute, symptomatic COVID-19 infection. There is increasing evidence for COVID-19 induced autoimmunity in the pediatric population and pediatric care providers should be on high alert for new onset autoimmune disease in children afflicted by COVID-19.

© 2021. The Author(s).