In the 10-year analysis of Japanese patients with newly diagnosed CML-CP in the ENESTnd trial, nilotinib yielded higher cumulative response rates. There were no new occurrences of disease progression or deaths since the 5-year analysis. Cumulative 10-year rates of MMR and MR were higher in the nilotinib arms [300 mg twice daily (BID), 86.2% and 69.0%, respectively; 400 mg BID, 78.3% and 69.6%, respectively] than the imatinib arm (400 mg once daily, 60.0% and 48.0%, respectively). Nasopharyngitis (85.7%, 77.3%, 79.2%), rash (50.0%, 68.2%, 37.5%), headache (39.3%, 45.5%, 25.0%), and back pain (39.3%, 50.0%, 29.2%) were the most frequently reported all-grade adverse events (AEs) for nilotinib 300 and 400 mg BID and imatinib, respectively. Cardiovascular AEs were more common with nilotinib than with imatinib. More patients on nilotinib had pre-diabetic and diabetic levels of HbA1c (300 mg BID, 17.9% and 10.7%, respectively; 400 mg BID, 22.7% and 18.2%, respectively) compared with imatinib (4.2% each). Overall, 10-year results from the Japanese cohort are consistent with prior results from the full ENESTnd cohort and the Japanese subgroup, and continue to support the long-term use of nilotinib in Japanese patients with newly diagnosed CML-CP, but with proper monitoring and management of comorbidities.© 2021. Japanese Society of Hematology.
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