To evaluate risk factors leading to non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) occurrence in polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) women. A retrospective cohort study of a total of 586 women diagnosed with PCOS aged 13-35 years at the gynecology department at a university hospital was done to evaluate PCOS phenotype, metabolic syndrome (MetS) diagnosis, body composition, insulin sensitivity, sex hormones, lipid profile, liver function, and transient elastography (TE). In PCOS women with NAFLD compared to those without, MetS diagnosis (Hazard ratio [HR] 5.6, 95% Confidence interval [CI] 2.2-14.4, p  25 kg/m (HR 2.2, 95% CI 0.6-8.0, p = 0.24) was not. Among NAFLD patients who underwent TE, a higher number of MetS components indicated a worse degree of fibrosis and steatosis. MetS diagnosis and HA at PCOS diagnosis were risk factors associated with NAFLD, while 2-h insulin level in 75 g GTT and obesity were not. Although elevated aspartate aminotransferase levels were significant for NAFLD risk, liver enzyme elevations may not be present until late liver damage. Further prospective studies of PCOS women with MetS or HA are warranted to determine whether patients without liver enzyme elevations should undergo preemptive liver examinations.