Hyperandrogenism-clinical features resulting from increased androgen production and/or action-is not uncommon in peripubertal girls. Hyperandrogenism affects 3 to 20% of adolescent girls and often is associated with hyperandrogenemia. In prepubertal girls, the most common etiologies of androgen excess are premature adrenarche (60%) and congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH; 4%). In pubertal girls, polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS; 20-40%) and CAH (14%) are the most common diagnoses related to androgen excess. Androgen-secreting ovarian or adrenal tumors are rare (0.2%). Early pubic hair, acne, and/or hirsutism are the most common clinical manifestations, but signs of overt virilization in adolescent girls-rapid progression of pubic hair or hirsutism, clitoromegaly, voice deepening, severe cystic acne, growth acceleration, increased muscle mass, and bone age advancement past height age-should prompt detailed evaluation. This article addresses the clinical manifestations of and management considerations for non-PCOS-related hyperandrogenism in adolescent girls. We propose an algorithm to aid diagnostic evaluation of androgen excess in this specific patient population.
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