The new ATS/ERS/ESCMID/IDSA guideline answers 22 PICO questions on the treatment of lung diseases caused by complex (MAC), , and .
Especially in patients with microscopic detection of acid-fast bacteria in sputum or with cavernous disease manifestation, the start of treatment should not be delayed. Treatment should be based on species-specific resistance testing (according to the CLSI guidelines). In selected patients, adjuvant surgical resection after consultation with an expert is recommended.
Therapy is based on a regimen with at least three drugs including a macrolide (rather azithromycin than clarithromycin) and ethambutol. For patients with cavitation, with pronounced nodular bronchiectatic disease or with macrolide resistance, daily oral therapy should be expanded by parenteral amikacin or streptomycin. Liposomally encapsulated amikacin for inhalation is recommended in patients with treatment failure. Patients with nodular-bronchiectatic disease manifestation should receive oral macrolide-based therapy, which – depending on the extent – can be given 3 times a week. The recommended duration is 12 months after conversion of the sputum culture. M.
The triple combination of rifampicin, ethambutol and macrolide (or isoniazid) is recommended for at least 12 months. In patients with rifampicin resistance or intolerance, moxifloxacin is recommended as a replacement. M.
The combination of rifampicin, ethambutol and macrolide (and/or moxifloxacin) is recommended for at least 12 months after conversion of the sputum culture. For patients with cavernous disease manifestation, it is recommended to add at least parenteral amikacin and to consult experts. M.
At least 3, in the beginning rather 4 drugs are recommended for therapy. The choice of substance should be based on a in vitro resistance test. Macrolides are the basis, but should not be counted in patients with strains with inducible macrolide resistance. Due to the lack of data, no explicit recommendations are made regarding the duration of therapy; a consultation of experts is recommended.
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