Deep brain stimulation (DBS) surgery is an established treatment for movement disorders. Advances in neuroimaging techniques have resulted in improved targeting accuracy that may improve clinical outcomes. This study aimed to evaluate the safety and feasibility of using the Medtronic O-arm device for the acquisition of intraoperative stereotactic imaging, targeting, and localization of DBS electrodes compared with standard stereotactic MRI or computed tomography (CT).
Patients were recruited prospectively into the study. Routine frame-based stereotactic DBS surgery was performed. Intraoperative imaging was used to facilitate and verify the accurate placement of the intracranial electrodes. The acquisition of coordinates and verification of the position of the electrodes using the O-arm were evaluated and compared with conventional stereotactic MRI or CT. Additionally, a systematic review of the literature on the use of intraoperative imaging in DBS surgery was performed.
Eighty patients were included. The indications for DBS surgery were dystonia, Parkinson’s disease, essential tremor, and epilepsy. The globus pallidus internus was the most commonly targeted region (43.7%), followed by the subthalamic nucleus (35%). Stereotactic O-arm imaging reduced the overall surgical time by 68 min, reduced the length of time of acquisition of stereotactic images by 77%, reduced patient exposure to ionizing radiation by 24.2%, significantly reduced operating room (OR) costs per procedure by 31%, and increased the OR and neuroradiology suite availability.
The use of the O-arm in DBS surgery workflow significantly reduced the duration of image acquisition, the exposure to ionizing radiation, and costs when compared with standard stereotactic MRI or CT, without reducing accuracy.

© 2020 S. Karger AG, Basel.