Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is a complex disease in which phenotypic analysis and understanding pathological mechanisms facilitate personalized treatment and outcomes. However, the pathophysiology responsible for this robust observation is incompletely understood. The objective of the present work was to review how respiratory center regulation varies during sleep and wakeness in patients with OSA.
We searched for relevant articles up to December 31, 2019 in PubMed database.
This review examines the current literature on the characteristics of respiratory center regulation during wakefulness and sleep in OSA, detection method, and phenotypic treatment for respiratory center regulation.
Mechanisms for ventilatory control system instability leading to OSA include different sleep stages in chemoresponsiveness to hypoxia and hypercapnia and different chemosensitivity at different time. One can potentially stabilize the breathing center in sleep-related breathing disorders by identifying one or more of these pathophysiological mechanisms.
Advancing mechanism research in OSA will guide symptom research and provide alternate and novel opportunities for effective treatment for patients with OSA.