1. In this systematic review and meta-analysis, patients with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) had lower 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25-OHD) levels and a higher prevalence of vitamin D deficiency than those without OSA.
2. However, continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) treatment was not associated with significant changes in serum 25-OHD levels in patients with OSA.
Evidence Rating Level: 1 (Excellent)
Both obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) and vitamin D deficiency are associated with cardiovascular risks. Vitamin D deficiency is associated with several respiratory conditions, and the relationship between this deficiency and OSA is being recognized as increasingly important. However, the relationship between vitamin D deficiency and OSA is complex and remains poorly understood. Therefore, this study aimed to better characterize the relationship between vitamin D deficiency and OSA by comparing the prevalence of vitamin D deficiency in those with and without OSA and determining the impact of continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) on vitamin D levels.
Of 883 identified records, 28 studies were included from database inception to March 2023. Studies were included if they were conducted on patients 18 years and older who had a diagnosis of OSA confirmed by polysomnography and investigated one of the following: OSA levels in individuals with and without OSA, serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25-OHD) levels among patients with OSA, the effect of CPAP treatment on vitamin D levels, or the effects of vitamin D supplementation on OSA severity. Studies were excluded if inadequate data was reported or if OSA was not confirmed in the study participants. The primary outcome was the difference in the serum 23-OHD levels amongst different groups.
The results demonstrated that patients with OSA had lower 25-OHD levels and a higher prevalence of vitamin D deficiency than those without OSA. This relationship was not significantly impacted by body mass index (BMI), age, or geographical latitude. However, treatment with CPAP was not associated with significant changes in serum 25-OHD levels in patients with OSA. However, the review was limited by only including studies published in English, which may have affected the generalizability of the findings. Nonetheless, the study added further evidence to suggest a link between OSA and vitamin D deficiency.
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