To identify ocular abnormalities in premature children in order to treat reversible visual disorders and help prevent low vision and blindness in this population at risk.
This was a cross-sectional, analytical study carried out from November 1, 2018 to July 31, 2019 at the Yaoundé Gyneco-Obstetric And Pediatric Hospital, including premature children, aged 3 to 15 years. The variables studied were age, sex, prenatal, birth and past ophthalmological history, visual acuity, oculomotor examination and fundus examination. For statistical analysis, we used the epi-info software 3.5.4, the Chi test, odds ratio and a 95% confidence interval with a significance P<0.05.
Of the 50 patients examined, the mean age was 6.02 years±2.58. Of the 22 optically corrected patients, hyperopia and hyperopic astigmatism were predominant (70.5%) (n=31). Distance visual acuity, measured in 31 cooperative patients (62 eyes), was between 3/10 and 8/10 in 14 eyes (22.6%), and<3/10 in two eyes (3.2%). Strabismus was present in 21 patients (42%), of which 13 cases were esotropia (61.9%). Tropical endemic limbo-conjunctivitis was found in eight eyes (8%). There were no cases of retinopathy of prematurity. Very low birth weight (<1500g) and neonatal resuscitation were associated with strabismus.
Ocular abnormalities in preterm infants are dominated by strabismus, which is associated with very low birth weight and neonatal resuscitation.

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