Among different types of poly unsaturated fatty acids, omega-3 fatty acids (FA) play a substantial role in brain development and functioning. This review was designed to evaluate and synthesize available evidence regarding omega-3 FAs and functional outcome in the ultra-high-risk (UHR) population.
An electronic search in PubMed, EMBASE, PSYCINFO and COCHRANE search engines has been performed for all articles published until January 2019. The studies that have data regarding omega-3 FAs and functional outcome in UHR population were included.
Out of 397 nonduplicate citations, 19 articles met selection criteria. These articles were from four different primary studies, namely the Program of Rehabilitation and Therapy (PORT), the North American Prodromal Longitudinal Studies (NAPLS), Vienna High Risk study (VHR) and the NEURAPRO. The data from the NAPLS study found a positive correlation between functional improvement and frequency of dietary intake omega-3 FA. Moreover, among the erythrocyte omega-3 FA only eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) showed a positive correlation with functional score. The VHR study found long-term improvement in functional outcome in omega-3 group compared to control, whereas such difference was noticed in the NEURAPRO. In the VHR study both omega-3 and omega-6 together predicted the functional improvement at 12 weeks.
The number of studies available remains insufficient and more studies with standardized outcome measures in a clinically comparable UHR population would be of more value to understand the clinical benefits of omega-3 FA in the UHR population.

© 2021 John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.