One-carbon metabolism provides the methyl groups for both DNA and histone tail methylation reactions, two of the main epigenetic processes that tightly regulate the chromatin structure and gene expression levels. Several enzymes involved in one-carbon metabolism, as well as several epigenetic enzymes, are regulated by intracellular metabolites and redox cofactors, but their expression levels are in turn regulated by epigenetic modifications, in such a way that metabolism and gene expression reciprocally regulate each other to maintain homeostasis and regulate cell growth, survival, differentiation and response to environmental stimuli. Increasing evidence highlights the contribution of impaired one-carbon metabolism and epigenetic modifications in neurodegeneration. This article provides an overview of DNA and histone tail methylation changes in major neurodegenerative disorders, namely Alzheimer’s disease, Parkinson’s disease and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, discussing the contribution of oxidative stress and impaired one-carbon and redox metabolism to their onset and progression.
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