To compare the safety and efficacy of open simple prostatectomy (OSP) and robotic simple prostatectomy (RSP) for the treatment of large benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH).
We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of 52 patients who underwent OSP (n = 23) and RSP (n = 29) between January 2005 and March 2019 at a single institution. The preoperative status of the patients, complications related to surgery, and the functional outcomes of the surgery were analyzed.
There were no significant differences in the preoperative total prostate volume, transitional volume, prostate-specific antigen value, and age between the two groups. Postoperative improvements in the International Prostate Symptom Score, maximum urinary flow rate, and postvoid residual were significant and similar for both groups. There were no significant differences between the two groups regarding surgery duration and resected prostate volume. The majority of patients in both groups had the urethral Foley catheter removed within the planned 10 day postoperative period, with the exception of two patients in the OSP group who had prolonged indwelling Foley catheter placement because of persistent hematuria. Postoperative hematocrit changes were significantly lower in the RSP group (RSP: 7.8 ± 4.1%, OSP: 14.2 ± 4.9%,  < 0.001). Seven patients (30.4%) who underwent OSP and two patients (6.9%) who underwent RSP were transfused because of significant intraoperative bleeding. Two patients from the RSP group who received transfusion comprised the first two cases that underwent RSP treatment. During the follow-up period, two patients (one patient in the OSP group and one patient in the RSP group) underwent transurethral incision of the bladder neck for bladder neck contracture.
Both OSP and RSP can produce excellent outcomes after surgery. However, complications of bleeding are significantly less prevalent in RSP, suggesting that RSP can replace conventional OSP.

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