Emerging arboviral diseases like Zika, dengue and chikungunya that are transmitted by Aedes aegypti mosquitoes, are increasingly threatening human health. Blends of human-like synthetic chemical attractants can be used to attract host-seeking mosquitoes. The aim of this study was to test new combinations of traps and odour baits in the laboratory, followed by testing the best candidates in the field to improve Ae. aegypti monitoring and surveillance.
First, the BG-Suna trap was evaluated for capturing laboratory-reared Ae. aegypti by testing normal and inverted positions in screen cage tests. Secondly, the attractiveness of the MB5 blend, CO, and their combination was tested. Thirdly, we tested the attractiveness of different trap types (BG-Suna, BG-Sentinel, MM-X and CDC light trap). Finally, we confirmed laboratory results in the field in Paramaribo, Suriname, using the MB5 and BG-Lure odour blends, CO and the BG-Sentinel and BG-Bowl trap using a Latin Square design.
The MB5 blend in combination with CO outperformed traps baited only with CO or MB5 in screen cage tests (P < 0.0001). The BG-Sentinel trap performed equally well as the inverted BG-Suna and was taken to the field (P = 0.729). In the field, we captured Ae. aegypti, Cx. quinquefasciatus and Cx. nigripalpus. We confirmed the laboratory results and found that the combination of the MB5 blend and CO almost doubled Ae. aegypti female captures (P = 0.004) and more than doubled Culex spp. female captures (P = 0.005) compared to using only CO. Interestingly, the MB5 blend outperformed the commercially available BG-Lure, in the BG-Sentinel (P < 0.001). The BG-Bowl also attracted Ae. aegypti when baited with the MB5 blend in similar numbers as the BG-Sentinel baited with the MB5 (P = 0.362).
Our study demonstrated that the BG-Sentinel trap baited with the MB5 blend and CO outperforms the current golden standard (BG-Sentinel trap with BG-Lure) for monitoring Ae. aegypti females and males, in both laboratory and field experiments. The BG-Bowl baited with the MB5 blend is a good candidate for home use. Finally, the results show that CO is an indispensable component of the attractive blend.