A vaccine against Trichinella spiralis infection is urgently needed to interrupt its transmission from domestic animals to humans. However, no vaccine against T. spiralis is currently available. Our previous study demonstrated that the use of the 43-kDa glycoprotein present in excretory-secretory (ES) proteins of muscle larvae (ML) as an intramuscular DNA vaccine led to a 52.1% protection rate against T. spiralis infection. Attenuated Salmonella strains have the advantage of eliciting mucosal immunity, which is important for controlling T. spiralis infections at the intestinal stage and can be provided as vaccines via oral or intranasal routes. Therefore, in this study, complete 43-kDa glycoprotein (Ts43) sequences of T. spiralis were cloned into the vector pYA3681, and the recombinant plasmid pYA3681-Ts43 was transformed into the attenuated Salmonella typhimurium strain χ11802. The results showed that oral vaccination of mice with attenuated Salmonella carrying the recombinant plasmid pYA3681-Ts43 induced an evident elevation of the local intestinal mucosal sIgA and serum IgG antibody responses. The flow cytometry results showed that the percentages of CD4 T cells and secreted IFN-γ, IL-4, and IL-17A in CD4 T cells were significantly increased in the spleen and mesenteric lymph node (MLN) lymphocytes of the vaccinated groups. In addition, increased levels of the IFN-γ, IL-4, and IL-17A cytokines were also observed in the serum of the immunized groups. The above immune response results in the immunized groups demonstrated that protective immunity was elicited in this study. Finally, vaccinated mice demonstrated a significant 45.9% reduction in ML burden after infection with T. spiralis. This study demonstrated that oral vaccination with Ts43 delivered by attenuated Salmonella elicited local and systemic concurrent Th1/Th2/Th17 immune responses and provided partial protection against T. spiralis infection in BALB/c mice. This is a prospective strategy for the prevention and control of trichinellosis.
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