The aim of this study was to retrospectively review the midface and orbital floor fractures treated at our institution with regard to epidemiological aspects, surgical treatment options and postoperative complications and discuss this data with the current literature.
One thousand five hundred and ninety-four patients with midface and orbital fractures treated at the Department of Oral, Cranio-Maxillofacial and Facial Plastic Surgery of the Goethe University Hospital in Frankfurt (Germany) between 2007 and 2017 were retrospectively reviewed. The patients were evaluated by age, gender, etiology, fracture pattern, defect size, surgical treatment and complications.
The average patient age was 46.2 (± 20.8). Most fractures (37.5%) occurred in the age between 16 and 35. Seventy-two percent of patients were male while 28% were female. The most common cause of injury was physical assault (32.0%) followed by falls (30.8%) and traffic accidents (17.0%). The average orbital wall defect size was 297.9 mm (± 190.8 mm2). For orbital floor reconstruction polydioxanone sheets (0.15 mm 38.3%, 0.25 mm 36.2%, 0.5 mm 2.8%) were mainly used, followed by titanium meshes (11.5%). Reconstructions with the 0.15 mm polydioxanone sheets showed the least complications (p < 0.01, r = 0.15). Eighteen percent of patients who showed persistent symptoms and post-operative complications: 12.9% suffered from persistent hypoesthesia, 4.4% suffered from post-operative diplopia and 3.9% showed intra-orbital hematoma.
Results of the clinical outcome in our patients show that 0.15 mm resorbable polydioxanone sheets leads to significantly less post-operative complications for orbital floor defects even for defects beyond the recommended 200 mm.