Orexin neurons, located in the hypothalamus, produce orexin-A and orexin-B neuropeptides and send widespread projections throughout the central nervous system, including many nuclei that are critically involved in sleep-wake, cardiorespiratory, and autonomic regulation. Significant progress has been made to better understand the roles of orexins in the control of breathing and autonomic functions since the discovery of orexins in 1998. Orexin neurons are CO /pH chemosensitive and blockade of orexin receptors with orexin receptor antagonists can significantly attenuate ventilatory response to hypercapnia or CO chemoreflex. Animal models with orexin abnormalities, for example, too little or too much, have all been reported to have significant alterations in breathing, central chemoreception (hypercapnic chemoreflex), blood pressure, thermoregulation, and cardiorespiratory responses to stress. More recent studies further show that abnormalities of the orexin system are linked to many neurological disorders in addition to narcolepsy, for example, sleep disorders, neurodegenerative disorders, neurogenic hypertension, and sudden infant death syndrome. These new findings have significantly advanced the knowledge in understanding the underlying mechanism of orexin-associated health and diseases while providing a new pathway for possible treatments. In this article, we will discuss some of the progresses in basic research and in health and diseases. © 2020 American Physiological Society. Compr Physiol 10:345-363, 2020.Copyright © 2020 American Physiological Society. All rights reserved.
A randomized trial on the effect of oral combined estradiol and drospirenone on glucose and insulin metabolism in healthy menopausal women with a normal oral glucose tolerance test.
July 9, 2020
Role of sFlt-1/PIGF ratio and uterine Doppler in pregnancies with chronic kidney disease suspected with Pre-eclampsia or HELLP syndrome.
October 1, 2020
May 1, 2020
June 18, 2019
- ACC 2020The American College of Cardiology decided to cancel ACC.20/WCC due to COVID-19, which was scheduled to take place March 28-30 in Chicago. However, ACC.20/WCC Virtual Meeting continues to release cutting edge science and practice changing updates for cardiovascular professionals on demand and free through June 2020.
- ENDO: 2020ENDO 2020 Annual Conference has been canceled due to COVID-19. Here are highlights of emerging data that has still been released. Keep an eye out for ENDO Online 2020, which will take place from June 8 to 22.
Psych Congress 2019The annual Psych Congress, held in San Diego, California, from October 3-6, 2019, brings together members of the entire mental health team, including psychiatrists, physician assistants, nurse practitioners, psychologists, and primary care physicians, with experts in mental health to improve patient outcomes through education.