Studies on the thalamus have mostly focused on sensory relay nuclei, but the organization of pathways associated with emotions is not well understood. We addressed this issue by testing the hypothesis that the primate amygdala acts, in part, like a sensory structure for the affective import of stimuli and conveys this information to the mediodorsal thalamic nucleus, magnocellular part (MDmc). We found that primate sensory cortices innervate amygdalar sites that project to the MDmc, which projects to the orbitofrontal cortex. As in sensory thalamic systems, large amygdalar terminals innervated excitatory relay and inhibitory neurons in the MDmc that facilitate faithful transmission to the cortex. The amygdala, however, uniquely innervated a few MDmc neurons by surrounding and isolating large segments of their proximal dendrites, as revealed by three-dimensional high-resolution reconstruction. Physiologic studies have shown that large axon terminals are found in pathways issued from motor systems that innervate other brain centers to help distinguish self-initiated from other movements. By analogy, the amygdalar pathway to the MDmc may convey signals forwarded to the orbitofrontal cortex to monitor and update the status of the environment in processes deranged in schizophrenia, resulting in attribution of thoughts and actions to external sources.
American Society of Hematology 2020 guidelines for management of venous thromboembolism: treatment of deep vein thrombosis and pulmonary embolism.
October 5, 2020
August 10, 2020
New insights to guide patient care: the bidirectional relationship between male infertility and male health.
February 25, 2020
- ACC 2020The American College of Cardiology decided to cancel ACC.20/WCC due to COVID-19, which was scheduled to take place March 28-30 in Chicago. However, ACC.20/WCC Virtual Meeting continues to release cutting edge science and practice changing updates for cardiovascular professionals on demand and free through June 2020.
- Psych Congress 2019The annual Psych Congress, held in San Diego, California, from October 3-6, 2019, brings together members of the entire mental health team, including psychiatrists, physician assistants, nurse practitioners, psychologists, and primary care physicians, with experts in mental health to improve patient outcomes through education.