Since nontuberculous mycobacterial pulmonary disease (NTM-PD) is common in middle-aged/elderly slender women at risk of osteoporosis, we hypothesized that NTM-PD could be associated with osteoporosis. The study aimed to evaluate the prevalence of osteoporosis in patients with NTM-PD compared with that in the general population and determine the factors associated with osteoporosis in the subjects, including the serum estradiol (E) and 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD) levels.
We have recruited 228 consecutive adult patients with NTM-PD from a prospective cohort study at the Keio University Hospital, who had no history of osteoporosis or osteoporosis-associated bone fracture but underwent dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry-based bone mineral density (BMD) evaluation from August 2017-September 2019. The E and 25OHD levels were measured in 165 patients with available stored serum samples. We performed multivariable logistic regression analyses for osteopenia and osteoporosis.
Osteoporosis (T-score ≤  - 2.5) and osteopenia (T-score - 1 to - 2.5) were diagnosed in 35.1% and 36.8% of patients with NTM-PD, respectively. Compared with the general population, the proportion of osteoporosis was significantly higher in 50-59-, 60-69-, and 70-79-year-old women with NTM-PD. Multivariable analysis revealed that older age (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] for 1-year increase = 1.12; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.07-1.18), female sex (aOR = 36.3; 95% CI = 7.57-174), lower BMI (aOR for 1 kg/m decrease = 1.37; 95% CI = 1.14-1.65), and chronic Pseudomonas aeruginosa (PA) infection (aOR = 6.70; 95% CI = 1.07-41.8) were independently associated with osteoporosis. Additionally, multivariable analysis in 165 patients whose serum E and 25OHD levels were measured showed that both low E levels (< 10 pg/mL) and lower 25OHD levels were independently associated with osteoporosis.
Middle-aged/elderly women with NTM-PD have a higher prevalence of osteoporosis than the general population. BMD screening should be considered in NTM-PD, especially in older females with severe diseases such as chronic PA infection and lower BMI, and low serum E and 25OHD levels.

© 2022. The Author(s).