Osteoporosis is nowadays understood as an increased risk of fractures, with bone density measurement by dual-energy X‑ray absorptiometry (DXA) being a useful diagnostic criterion and a potent fracture predictor; however, especially in geriatric patients the result is often falsely negative, so that the diagnosis, indications for treatment and treatment selection should be based on an overall clinical evaluation of the individual situation. Sarcopenia is defined as a geriatric syndrome characterized by a generalized loss of skeletal mass and muscle function. Sarcopenia is associated with an increased likelihood of adverse outcomes including falls, fractures, disability and mortality. Since 2018 it is possible in Germany to encode sarcopenia in the International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems, 10th revision, German modification (ICD-10-GM, M62.50). In the case of a high fracture risk and indications for the presence of sarcopenia, the whole body composition should be assessed by DXA within the framework of the measurement of bone mineral density. In the treatment of osteosarcopenia non-pharmacological measures must be initiated in addition to pharmacological measures. It is particularly important to clarify and if necessary to resolve the cause of falls resulting in fractures as well as to regularly reevaluate the treatment goals.