Antiplatelet drug resistance is associated with periprocedural ischemic complications in patients undergoing intravascular stent implantation. Nonresponders are subject to increased risk of stent thrombosis and in-stent stenosis, and high on-treatment platelet reactivity (HTPR) is present in up to 44% of patients taking clopidogrel, a widely-used component of dual antiplatelet therapy (DAPT). Evidence points to ticagrelor as a viable alternative to overcome HTPR on clopidogrel. Studies have shown fewer thromboembolic events with ticagrelor therapy; however, results on bleeding risk are mixed, and its safety and efficacy in hybrid operative techniques has yet to be established. Transcarotid artery revascularization (TCAR) is a hybrid procedure to treat severe carotid stenosis. The objective of this study was to establish the safety and efficacy of ticagrelor as part of DAPT in patients undergoing TCAR, and to develop a protocol to ensure adequate antithrombotic protection throughout the operative course.
Data was collected retrospectively for patients undergoing TCAR on DAPT of aspirin and ticagrelor for symptomatic (≥50%) or asymptomatic (≥80%) carotid stenosis. Preoperative platelet reactivity was determined using Thromboelastography with Platelet Mapping®, with adequate platelet reactivity defined as maximal amplitude produced by adenosine diphosphate (MA) <50 mm. The primary safety endpoint was 30-day major bleeding event rate. Primary efficacy endpoints were 30-day incidence of ipsilateral cerebrovascular ischemic event (stroke or transient ischemic attack), myocardial infarction (MI), and death. Secondary endpoints were postoperative length of hospital stay (LOS), procedure time, and clamp/flow reversal time.
Sixty-seven TCAR procedures with patients on periprocedural DAPT of ticagrelor and aspirin were performed during the study period. Patients had an average age of 79 years and 28 (42%) were symptomatic. The mean procedure time was 45.8 ± 9.2 minutes, with a mean clamp/flow reversal time of 4.8 ± 1.5 minutes, and mean postoperative LOS of 3.1 ± 2.2 days for inpatients and 1.3 ± 0.8 days for outpatients. Technical success was achieved in all cases, with no 30-day incidence of major bleeding events, and no incidence of ipsilateral cerebrovascular ischemic event, MI, or death.
Initial experience with ticagrelor as part of DAPT in patients undergoing TCAR demonstrated its safety and efficacy in both symptomatic and asymptomatic disease. No bleeding events or thromboembolic complications occurred. Furthermore, a protocol to administer ticagrelor, to assay for HTPR on ticagrelor, and consequent medication and patient management is proposed. Ticagrelor may represent a safe and effective alternative to overcome clopidogrel nonresponsiveness in DAPT regimens for TCAR.
Copyright © 2020. Published by Elsevier Inc.