To assesses if active surveillance (AS) is an appropriate treatment modality for patients with intermediate risk (IR) prostate cancer (PCa) utilizing population-level data to compare the survival outcomes of men with low risk (LR) and IR PCa initially treated with AS, watchful waiting (WW) or active treatment (AT).
166,244 patients were initially identified in the Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results database using biopsy Gleason Grade Group (GG) alone – GG1 and GG2. 94,891 patients with GG1 and GG2 disease were further stratified by National Comprehensive Cancer Network (NCCN) risk categories – LR, favorable IR (fIR), and unfavorable IR (uIR). Predictors of cancer-specific (CSS) and overall survival (OS) were analyzed, stratified by risk classification and initial treatment – AT (first line curative surgery or radiotherapy), AS or WW, utilizing the new “Watchful waiting recode (2010+)” variable.
We found GG2 patients on AS had worse CSS and OS than GG2 patients who received AT and GG1 patients treated with AS or AT; these trends persist within the NCCN fIR and uIR cohorts. WW patients (GG1, GG2, LR, fIR, uIR) had the worst survival outcomes of any cohort (log rank tests p<0.05).
We demonstrate a significantly worse 5-year CSS and OS for men with GG2, fIR, and uIR PCa treated with AS compared to AT. Our analysis suggests that AS should not be the preferred treatment modality for IR PCa.

Copyright © 2021. Published by Elsevier Inc.