Unsuccessful cytogenetic (US) analysis at baseline has been reported to be a poor prognostic feature in patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML). We conducted this study to examine the prognostic impact of UC/inconclusive cytogenetic analysis on outcomes in patients with AML undergoing allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT).
We retrospectively analyzed all adults undergoing HSCT for AML from January 2011 to August 2019. Patients with any documented cytogenetic abnormalities were excluded. Baseline characteristics and transplant outcomes were compared between patients with normal cytogenetics and those with UC.
Overall, 243 AML patients (median age, 55 years; 55.1% female) were included. UC were reported in 79 patients, whereas 164 patients had a normal karyotype. The two groups were similar to each other in terms of baseline demographics, treatment received, and transplant related variables. There was no difference between patients with UC and normal cytogenetics in terms of relapse-free survival (66 months vs. 42 months, p = .53) or overall survival (OS; 77 months vs. 76 months, p = .72). Survival parameters remained similar even in subgroup analysis based on NPM1 and FLT3 mutation status. Significant predictors of OS after HSCT in AML patients with UC were increased age at time of HSCT (hazard ratio [HR] = -1.049; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.005-1.095), favorable (NPM1/FLT3) mutation profile (HR = 0.11; 95% CI, 0.01-0.84), neutrophil engraftment < 17 days, and absence of chronic graft-versus-host disease (HR = 3.27; 95% CI, 1.20-8.60).
Outcomes after HSCT are comparable between AML patients with UC analysis and patients with normal cytogenetics even after stratification based on molecular risk factors. Allogeneic HSCT may mitigate the poor prognosis of UC analysis in patients with AML.

Copyright © 2020. Published by Elsevier Ltd.