Hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy (HIPEC) is a promising treatment strategy for patients with peritoneal metastasis of ovarian cancer. Heat shock proteins (HSPs) play an important role in cellular stress during HIPEC treatment. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether paclitaxel can exert antitumor effects by inhibiting heat shock protein 27 (HSP27) expression during HIPEC treatment. Cell viability was detected by CCK8 assay. We used Western blot analysis to detect HSP27 expression under hyperthermia conditions with or without paclitaxel in SKOV3 cells. To further examine the role of HSP27 in the apoptosis, Bcl-2, Bax and Caspase-3 protein expression were additionally determined after reducing HSP27 levels using an siRNA strategy, and apoptosis was detected using the Annexin V/PI assay. The upregulation of HSP27 expression was accompanied with a rise in temperature. In addition, HSP27 could promote Bcl-2 expression, inhibit Bax and Caspase-3 expression, reduce the Bax / Bcl-2 ratio markedly in SKOV3 cells. Furthermore, paclitaxel could upregulate the Bax / Bcl-2 ratio by inhibiting HSP27 expression, and in turn, promoting apoptosis due to hyperthermia. Paclitaxel could also promote apoptosis by inhibiting HSP27 in SKOV3 cells. Our results demonstrate a synergistic effect between paclitaxel and hyperthermia at the cellular level.Copyright © 2020. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.