Loss-of-function variants in the gene SCN2A, which encodes the sodium channel Na1.2, are strongly associated with autism spectrum disorder and intellectual disability. An estimated 20%-30% of children with these variants also suffer from epilepsy, with altered neuronal activity originating in neocortex, a region where Na1.2 channels are expressed predominantly in excitatory pyramidal cells. This is paradoxical, as sodium channel loss in excitatory cells would be expected to dampen neocortical activity rather than promote seizure. Here, we examined pyramidal neurons lacking Na1.2 channels and found that they were intrinsically hyperexcitable, firing high-frequency bursts of action potentials (APs) despite decrements in AP size and speed. Compartmental modeling and dynamic-clamp recordings revealed that Na1.2 loss prevented potassium channels from properly repolarizing neurons between APs, increasing overall excitability by allowing neurons to reach threshold for subsequent APs more rapidly. This cell-intrinsic mechanism may, therefore, account for why SCN2A loss-of-function can paradoxically promote seizure.
Copyright © 2021 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.