Examine reported availability of parental benefits for pediatric residents and impact of parenthood on reported importance of characteristics of post-training positions and career goals in 2008 and 2019.
We analyzed data from American Academy of Pediatrics surveys of graduating residents in 2008 and 2019 querying (1) parenthood, (2) benefits during residency, (3) importance of parental benefits and job characteristics in post-training position, and (4) subspecialty career goal. Logistic regression was used to estimate independent effects of gender, partner status, and parenthood via derived predicted values (PVs).
Of 1021 respondents, three-fourths were women. Respondents in 2019 were less likely than in 2008 to have children (24.5% vs 33.8%, P < .01). In 2019, respondents were less likely to report availability of maternity (PV = 78.5% vs 89.5%, P < .001) or parental leave (PV = 42.5% vs 59.2%, P < .001) and more likely to report availability of lactation space (PV = 77.8% vs 56.1%, P < .001.). Most residents reported control over work hours, family considerations, and number of overnight calls per month as essential or very important characteristics in post-training positions. Controlling for resident characteristics, parenthood was associated with importance of family considerations and overnight calls in post-training position. Parenthood did not associate with subspecialty career goals, but gender did.
Residents are less likely to report availability of parental benefits during residency training in 2019. Most residents, both those with children and those without, consider parent friendly characteristics important in post-training positions. Parenthood does not correlate with subspecialty career goals independent from gender.

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