To characterize recent trends among practicing female surgeons, surgical trainees, and surgical residency applicants to assess potential progress toward gender parity.
Workforce statistics on U.S. practicing surgeons, trainees, and applicants among 9 surgical specialties were obtained from the Association of American Medical Colleges and Electronic Residency Application Service public databases. Physician and trainee data during 2007-2019 and residency applicant data during 2016-2020 were analyzed by surgical specialty. We used Cochrane Armitage trend tests to assess changes over time.
Female practicing urologists increased 104% during the study period, the third-largest increase among 9 surgical specialties (range 36%-114%, all p<0.01), representing continued growth in the prevalence and proportion of women among surgical trainees in all surgical disciplines. In contrast, the overall change for female urology residents (28%) lagged significantly, ranking eighth among the 9 specialties (range 9%-149%, all p<0.01), suggesting slowing growth in the training pipeline. Finally, while the proportional change in urology applicants has been significant (33%, p<0.01), growth rates have markedly slowed in the past 5 years compared to women in practice and training since 2007.
While female representation among practicing urologists has improved relative to other surgical disciplines, declining rates of women entering and applying to urology residency suggest a longer trajectory toward gender parity.

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