Myelodysplastic/myeloproliferative neoplasms (MDS/MPN) are a group of rare and heterogeneous hematopoietic disorders that frequently present a diagnostic challenge. Here we present our institutional experience with next-generation sequencing (NGS), together with morphologic, flow cytometric, and cytogenetic evaluation, in the diagnosis of MDS/MPN, with particular emphasis on MDS/MPN unclassifiable (MPN-U).
We evaluated the morphologic, flow cytometric, cytogenetic, and molecular characteristics of all MDS/MPN cases that underwent NGS at our institution between April 2016 and February 2019.
Thirty-seven cases of MDS/MPN were identified, including 14 cases of MDS/MPN-U. Ninety-seven percent harbored mutations and immunophenotypic aberrancies (36/37), while only 38% had cytogenetic abnormalities (12/32). The MDS/MPN-U group had the highest rate of myeloblast phenotypic abnormalities and had a high mutation rate of approximately 2.7 mutated genes per case, most commonly in JAK2, SRSF2, and ASXL1.
No single ancillary study was abnormal in every case, but all cases had at least one abnormal finding, demonstrating the usefulness of a multiparameter approach to the diagnosis of MDS/MPN. Although a few specific mutations were found exclusively in MDS/MPN-U and JAK2 mutations were most prevalent, larger studies are needed to determine whether MDS/MPN-U has a mutational “fingerprint,” which may aid in diagnosis and targeted therapy.

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