Cognitive dysfunction is a complaint of many patients diagnosed with fibromyalgia. Although the main symptoms of the disease are fatigue, widespread musculoskeletal pain, poor sleep quality, and tenderness points, the cognitive symptoms can be more distressing than the pain itself, and negatively affect their lives; however, many healthcare professionals underestimate these cognitive complaints and it is still one of the least researched topics. Proper management of these symptoms at an early stage may have a great impact to improve the mental health, physical function, and overall health of these patients. Hence, this traditional review aimed to look at the previous body of literature in PubMed in the past five years to address the pathophysiology of the cognitive dysfunction in fibromyalgia patients, to find the risk factors of cognitive dysfunction in these patients, to discover the recent modalities for treatment, and to figure out the clinical implications and recent recommendations by researchers on screening, diagnosis, and management of fibromyalgia and its cognitive dysfunction symptoms. This review has shown the various mechanisms of cognitive dysfunction. Some mechanisms are related to disease symptomologies, such as excessive pain perception, and others are related to hormonal and metabolite changes in the brain. Tobacco smoking and high body mass index showed an inverse impact on cognitive dysfunction and quality of life in fibromyalgia. Other risk factors and clinical implications were discussed in detail.
Copyright © 2021, Ibraheem et al.